It is generally agreed that Resilient PNT (Positioning, Navigation & Timing) is
essential for the maritime sector. E-navigation and newer developments, such as
sea traffic management and autonomous ships will not be viable in the longterm,
without totally dependable positioning and communications. However,
there is little consensus on how to achieve resilience. eLoran has been
demonstrated as an effective terrestrial complement to GNSS, but some
European countries have now turned off their Loran transmitting stations, which
are essential to the future provision of eLoran.