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The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is a major industrial project developed by eight UNIFE (the European Rail Industry Association) members: Alstom Transport; Ansaldo STS; AZD Praha; Bombardier Transportation; CAF; Mermec; Siemens Mobility and Thales in close co-operation with the European Union, railway stakeholders and the GSM-R industry.

There are two basic components of ERTM: the European Train Control System (ETCS) an automatic train protecting system (ATP) to replace the existing national ATP systems. In addition there is GSM-R, a radio system for providing voice and data communication between the track and the train based on standard GSM using frequencies especially preserved for rail application with certain specific and advanced functions.